Bad sector: A bad sector in the hard drive area. Such sectors are difficult or impossible to read, and are no longer suitable for data storage.Bit: The smallest booking unit managed by the computer.Byte: Byte is a set of 8 binary digits


Control chip: The controller chip, data loss, is classified as Pen drives, SSDs and memory cards. It is your job to maintain the connection between the computer interface and the memory chip to ensure data is forwarded in both directions.


File System: To store files on a hard drive, your computer needs a file system that specifies the name and location of the file, which can be compared to a catalog. Each partition has its own custom catalog, the file allocation table: File AllocationTable, FAT, or Master File Table (MFT). Computers are the earliest file system of a FAT16, even under a DOS operating system. Then it is followed by FAT32, a Windows 95, Windows 98 file system followed by NTFS (New Technology File System). This file system for Windows NT based systems is, for example, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, and Windows 7 and 8. Unix and Linux operating systems use filesystems other than NTFS. The advantages of the NTFS file system against FAT are that files larger than 4 GB can be copied, so the maximum file size of the FAT file system is 4 GB. We support file systems: FAT, exFAT, NTFS, EXT2 / 3/4, HFS +, UFS1 / 2, XFS, ReiserFS, VMFS and virtual machine images: VMDK, VHD. FAT: File Allocation Table, a table maintained by the operating system, which records the location of the files. In FAT, each file has a single entry chain. The FAT12, FAT16 and FAT32-bit system used by DOS and Microsoft Windows. Firmware: Firmware is a small program that is stored in the hardware device’s ROM. Its task allows the operation of the particular hardware. This small program (usually) is located in a rewritable memory chip. The hardware manufacturer is constantly upgrading to the device, extending its knowledge and functions, so it is sometimes necessary to replace the firmware of the device or otherwise call the firmware update. Then the device can know more features, faster and / or more stable operation, etc. Flash: Flash or NAND flash. This kind of memory is a non-volatile type of computerized data storage technology that can be electronically deleted and reprogrammed. The storage device does not need power to store the information stored therein. They are primarily used in memory cards, USB flash drives (such as pen drives) and SSDs, ie solid-state drives.

Formatting: Formatting is a process in which data storage data store is prepared for data storage. Without formatting, we can not use our data storage, such as a hard drive we buy from a store recently. For a pen-drive or memory card, formatting is already done at the factory so users do not have to bother them, so they are ready for immediate use.


GB: Gigabyte: 1GB = 1 000 000 000 bytes


Hard disk: A round hard disk that is coated with a magnetised layer (magnetic disk). Hard Disk Drive: English: Hard Disk Drive, Briefly HDD, but it’s called winchester. A hard drive is a device that stores the data on the magnetizable disk or disks it contains. Data stored or stored is written or read by the “floating” writer / readhead above the disc. Data is recorded and stored in a two-digit system. Hard drives are characterized by capacity, write and read speed, magnetic disk rotation speed (RPM), and interface.

Hardware: The hardware means a tangible physical component or components such as a video card, sound card, or any part that can be installed in the computer. Nowadays, there are some motherboards that are already factory-equipped (integrated) with some hardware, such as motherboards, LAN (internet connection), hard disk controllers, video controllers, and other devices.


Interface: This is done through data transfer, there are several types: ATA (PATA), SATA (SATA I, SATA II, SATA III), SCSI, Serial Attached SCSI (SAS), USB.


MB: Megabyte: 1MB = 1 000 000 bytes.

MBR: Master Boot Record, for each hard disk that has a partition has a loader code that is scanned when you connect it to a computer, for example. The MBR is located on the first sector of the first band on the hard disk data area. The MBR sometimes contains unique information.

Memory Stick: Memory Stick is a memory card type, introduced by Sony in 1998. Memory Stick also has several variations: Memory Stick, Memory Stick Duo, Memory Stick Pro, Memory Stick HG, Memory Stick Micro.

Memory chip: An electronic component that can store data. It is also used for data storage in Pen drives, SSDs and memory cards.

Monolith: Or monolithic flash. Usually, this technology is used for memory cards or Pen-drives. The controller chip, memory chip (s), and additional components are integrated in a housing. For example, microSD cards are made with this technology. N NAND flash: See Flash NTFS: New Technology File System. A standard file system for Microsoft Windows NT and earlier releases (Windows 2000, XP, Windows Server 2003). Windows 95, 98, 98SE, and ME were unable to read the NTFS file system in native mode. NTFS replaced the FAT file system that was used for MS-DOS and earlier versions of Windows. NTFS’s novelties over FAT: support for metadata, support for more advanced data structures, and an important aspect of speed and reliability. The advantage of NTFS file systems over FAT is that it supports files larger than 4 GB. OOperating System: Operating System, OS. A basic software for computers that manages hardware and environments for running programs, applications. Some operating systems are examples: Windows NT / XP, 2000, WIN7, WIN8, Linux, UNIX, Macintosh etc. The operating system keeps the filesystem and the hardware under constant control and supervision. It also provides other services to programmers and users. PPATA: see interface Partitioning: With this process, you can divide your hard drive into several parts, after which you receive drivers with different lettering on your computer. Pen-drive: USB flash storage, USB key, pendulum, pen drive with a USB flash memory. It has a storage capacity of 8 MB to 256 GB. Some can keep data for 10 years and can withstand a million write-erase cycles. Standard interface: USB 1.0, USB 2.0, USB 3.0. The pen-drive features a small-sized printed circuit board with an attached metal connector, usually in a plastic case, but also in monolithic design, becoming more and more widespread. The enclosure is varied depending on the user’s needs: it has dust and drip-proof design and is extremely impact-resistant. Its connector is a USB type “A” type of personal computer.


PCB: English term: Printed Circuit Board, printed circuit board in Hungarian. Whatever electrical components of various types and varieties are soldered or assembled, for example: resistance, capacitor, LED, etc. RRAID: RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks or Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a storage technology that allows data to be distributed or replicated on a number of physically independent hard drives by creating a logical disk. Each RAID level is basically either increased data security or data transfer speed. Source: wikipedia, more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAID SSATA: see interface SD card: SD (Secure Digital) card is one of the most popular memory card types, cameras and cameras mainly used. The speed of the cards is given by their class, class 2, class 4, class 6, class 8, class 10, in which the post-class numbers indicate the minimum write / read speed of the cards in MB / s. S.M.A.R.T .: S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology) ie self-testing, analysis and recording technology. Developed by IBM for hard drives. Due to continuous monitoring of the state of the hard disk and the production of statistics, S.M.A.R.T. function. SSD: Solid State Drive, in Hungarian solid state drive. The SSD is a data storage device that does not include moving parts. Like hard disks, it has multiple interfaces: PATA, SATA, and so on. Since there are no moving parts that are therefore less vulnerable than conventional hard drives, soundless, no mechanical delays, data access is equally fast. The SSD is lovingly embedded into laptops or PCs as a system disk because it provides fast startup and fast operation compared to conventional hard drives. Sector: Sector or Block. The hard disk is divided into different sections for convenient storage. Each sector receives an identification number with a magnetic tag. A sector is usually 512 bytes in size. TTB: Terabyte: 1 TB = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes UUSB: Universal Serial Bus. Universal serial data communication channel. This is a standard data bus.


ZIP Drive: Zip drive has been a real breakthrough in floppy disk storage in 1994, with its 100 MB, then 250 MB and finally 750 MB capacity. In addition to the high price of its spread, the lack of compatibility with the traditional 3.5 “flop was a shortage. Rather, small companies used to archive their data daily.